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Friday, September 30, 2011

Commiphora mukul ,Guggul


  • as a binding agent only from modern perspective. Ayurveda mentions its use as anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, uterine tonic, anti-hypercholesterolemic and immodulatory
  • dose of the gum resin is from 5 to 50 grain used in placenta previa,amenorrhoea,dysmenorrhoea sore nipples,gonorrhea and ringworm
  • how it is purified for gynecological disorders and what is the anupana
  • purification of gum guggul (loban in unani medicine) - resin is soaked in water and left for some time . the supernatant water is decanted off. this process may be repeated once again. the vessel containing the dissolved resin is placed in the open and dried, that is the water is allowed to evaporate. drying may effected mechanically also.the resin to be employed will be in the form of an extract.
  • Guggulu is considered to be a binding agent, though they have not used this term.
    Acharya Sharangadhara mentions in Madhyama khanda 7/3....
    Kuryad Avahnisiddena kwachid Gugguluna vatim!!
    To prepare tablets without application of heat, Guggulu is added and tablets are advised to prepare. Here Guggulu acts as a binding agent only.
  • Lipid-lowering effects: Guggul (gum guggul) is a resin produced by the mukul mirth tree. Guggulipid is extracted from guggul using ethyl acetate. The preparation produced by extraction with petroleum ether is called a fraction A. Typical guggulipid preparations contain 2.5-5% of the plant sterols guggulsterones E and Z. These two components have been reported to exert effects on lipids.Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain these effects on lipids. Guggulsterones, particularly guggulsterone -pregnadiene-3,16-dione), have been reported to function as antagonists of the farsenoid X receptor (FXR) and the bile acid receptor (BAR), nuclear hormones which are involved with cholesterol metabolism and bile acid regulation. It has been reported that guggulsterone does not exert its lipid effects on mice lacking FXR. Other publications have proposed that guggul may inhibit lipogenic enzymes and HMG-Co A reductase in the liver. increase uptake of cholesterol by the liver via stimulation of LDL receptor binding. directly activate the thyroid gland and/or increase biliary and fecal excretion of cholesterol.
  • Antioxidant effects: Guggul extracts have been reported to possess antioxidant properties possibly mediating protection against myocardial necrosis
  • Platelet effects: Guggulipid has been found to inhibit platelet aggregation and increase fibrinolysis
  • Anti-inflammatory: the results of several studies suggest possible anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activities of guggul. On a per-microgram basis, guggulipid appears to be significantly less potent than indomethacin or hydrocortisone. Possible effects on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) have recently been observed in a clinical trial.
  • Guggul has been a key component in ancient Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine. But has become so scarce because of its overuse in its two habitats in India where it is found — Gujarat and Rajasthan that the World Conservation Union (IUCN) has enlisted it in its Red Data List of endangered species.

    Guggul produces a resinous sap known as gum guggul. The extract of this gum, called gugulipid, guggulipid or guglipid, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine, a traditional Hindu medicine, for nearly 3,000 years in India. The active ingredient in the extract is the steroid guggulsterone, which acts as an antagonist of the farnesoid X receptor, once believed to result in decreased cholesterol synthesis in the liver. However, several studies have been published that indicate no overall reduction in total cholesterol occurs using various dosages of guggulsterone, and levels of low-density lipoprotein ("bad cholesterol") increased in many people.
  • Guggul is sought for its gummy resin, which is harvested from the plant's bark through the process of tapping. In India and Pakistan, guggul is cultivated commercially. The resin of the guggul plant, known as gum guggulu, has a fragrance similar to that of myrrh and is commonly used in incense and perfumes. It is the same product that was known in Hebrew, ancient Greek and Latin sources as bdellium.

    Guggul can be purchased in a loosely packed form called dhoop, an incense from India, which is burned over hot coals. This produces a fragrant, dense smoke. The burning coals which let out the smoke are then carried around to different rooms and held in all corners for a few seconds. This is said to drive away evil spirits as well as remove the evil eye from the home and its family members.

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